In simple terms, stem cells are cells that have the ability to divide and create other cells like themselves, as well as divide and create cells more differentiated than themselves

Stem cell properties are:

Ability to replicate themselves (make copies of themselves)
Potency : capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types and tissues

Based on potency stem cells can be divided into 5 major types:

Totipotent Stem Cells (Omnipotent)

  • Pluripotent
  • Multipotent
  • Oligopotent
  • Unipotent
  • Totipotent

Totipotent Stem Cell

  • Can differentiate into embryonic and extra embryonic stem cells
  • Can develop into complete organism
  • Produced from fusion of egg and sperm cell
  • Comes from embryo 1 to 3 days old.

Pluripotent Stem Cell

  • Descendants of totipotent stem cells
  • Can form any cell type derived from germ cells
  • Example : blastocytes(5-14 days old )
  • Also called embryonic Stem Cells

Multipotent Stem Cells:

  • Cell differentiated , but can form a number of new tissues
  • Adult Stem Cells
  • Example: fetal tissue, cord blood , adipose tissue, bone marrow

Oligopotent Stem Cells:

– Can differentiate into only a few types of cells

  • examples: myeloid and Lymphoid Cells

Unipotential Stem Cells:

  • Can only produce One cell type
  • Example : Muscle Stem Cell

Stem cells have potential to replace cell tissue that has been damaged or destroyed

Types of Stem Cells:

  1. Embryonic Stem Cells
  2. Adult Stem Cells
  3. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

1. Embryonic Stem Cells

  • Derived from the inner cell mass of blastocytes of preimplantation -stage embryos
  • Need specific signals to differentiate to the desired cell types
  • If simply injected directly they will differentiate into many different type of cells including creation of teratomas
  • 2nd problem transplant rejection

2. Adult Stem Cells:

  • Less controversial
  • No destruction of embryos
  • No risk of immune rejection since it comes from the recipient (autograft).

3. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells:

  • Somatic cells produced in the lab and are reprogrammed genetically to an embryonic stem cell state
  • No immune rejection issues

How do Stem Cells Work?

When stem cells are introduced into the body, and their capability to differentiate – or turn into specialized cells – may allow them to repair diseased or injured tissues. They also proliferate, or renew themselves many times, which can provide an ongoing supply of healthy cells. Stem cells are “intelligent:” they can move through the body to where they are needed, and communicate with other cells.

Medical Conditions that Stem Cells can potentially be helpful in:

• Heart Disease
• Autoimmune Disorders
• Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Osteoarthritis
• Chronic joint pain
• Low back pain
• Bulging or Herniated Discs
• Spinal Cord Injuries
• Meniscus, ACL or MCL Tears
• Peyronie’s Disease
• Athletic Injury
• Erectile Dysfunction
• Lung Disease (COPD, Asthma)
• Diabetes Type II
• Parkinson’s Disease
• Alzheimer Disease
• Alcohol and Drug addiction
• ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease)
• Multiple Sclerosis
• Stroke
• Dermatological Conditions( Face and Neck Rejuvenation, scar/stretch mark improvement . hair follicle regeneration
• Reduces Post-Operative Inflammation
• Accelerates Healing
• Autism

Risks Related to Stem Cell Treatment:

– Skin infection/bleeding
– Failure of cells to work as expected
– The growth of tumors
– Inappropriate stem cell migration

Are Stem Cells Approved by the FDA?

Stem Cells are not approved by the FDA